system of gymnastics David Ospina Jersey , games may be used for hygienic, developmental and educational purposes. For general hygienic ends their value is great, if for no other reason, than that it usually requires a large air space, often outdoors, to play them. On the other hand, the hygienic value of games is a doubtful one, because the movements occurring in games can only be predetermined in general. That means that they cannot be graded as to quantity or quality with exactness.
Exactness, however, in these two things, is an absolute necessity where gymnastics are given for hygienic ends. Such exactness being possible with formal gymnastic exercises, these therefore must always be given a preference where exactness in quantity and quality of exercise is desirable or necessary.
The same may be said to be true of the developmental effect of exercises occurring in games. If it be difficult to trace the effect, formal gymnastic movements have upon the development of this tissue or that organ, it is certainly impossible to exactly predict the effect which the unpredetermined movements in games might have. Formal gymnastics will always be far superior in this respect to games.
To turn to the educational purposes of games. They are mental and moral ones. Among the mental ones co-ordination should be separately considered. As far as some of the mental processes (to be mentioned hereafter) are serviceable to establish coordination, games may be said to help coordination. Games can, however not be arranged methodically for coordination purposes, for the simple reason that the movements occurring in them cannot be predetermined. The development of coordination power must, therefore, also be the domain of formal gymnastics.
What use games are in the moral training of children and youth has been enlarged upon by many authors in many places. Even that teaching has to be incidental, as the occasion for pointing a moral offers in the course of a game. The great value of games in this direction lies in the fact that most of the moral teaching reward for proper punishment for improper actions is self administered or then applied by pupil-companions and playmates, not by the teacher.
In any attempt to classify games for teaching purposes one should arrange them as to their difficulty. The movements not being predetermined